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Principaux verbes irréguliers anglais

Les verbes irréguliers en anglais à connaître

Dans la famille des pièges en anglais, je demande… les verbes irréguliers anglais !

Si nous voulons parler d'un fait au passé en anglais, c'est la terminaison en -ed à tous les verbes ?

Eh bien… non !

Verbe régulier vs verbe irrégulier

En anglais, les verbes irréguliers sont les verbes qui, au prétérit et au participe passé, ont une forme différente de la normale.

Rappel : verbe régulier

Les verbes anglais normaux ont la forme suivante :

Base verbale Prétérit Participe passé
talk /tɔk/ (parler) talked /tɔkt/ (have) talked /tɔkt/
travel /ˈtɹæv·əɫ/ (voyager) traveled /ˈtɹæv·əɫd/ (have) traveled /ˈtɹæv·əɫd/
want /wɑnt/ (vouloir) wanted /ˈwɔnt·əd/ (have) wanted /ˈwɔnt·əd/

C'est-à-dire, dans le cas normal, le prétérit et le participe passé se forment simplement en ajoutant -ed à la base verbale.

(La base verbale est l'infinitif du verbe. C'est aussi la forme utilisée au présent simple. En y ajoutant un -s, cela donne le présent simple de la 3ème personne du singulier. En y ajoutant -ing cela donne le présent progressif. Ex.: talk => talk, talks, talking).

Exemple de verbe irrégulier anglais

Prenons maintenant un verbe irrégulier, le verbe to speak (parler) :

Comme vous le voyez, ici, il ne suffit pas d'ajouter -ed ! A vrai dire, il faut apprendre les trois formes par cœur. D'où les fameux speak, spoke, spoken ; break, broke, broken ; burn, burnt, burnt, etc. que vous répétiez à l'école.

Les verbes irréguliers sont parmi les plus courants. Ils sont tellement utilisés qu'il est impossible de passer à côté. Et nous finirions avec un chapeau d'âne en sortant un *selled ou un *putted !

Pièges dans la prononciation, pièges dans l'utilisation des temps, pièges dans l'orthographe, nous pensions en avoir fini… En voici donc un nouveau : les verbes irréguliers !

Sur BilingueAnglais.com, nous aimons nous concentrer en premier lieu sur les contenus essentiels à apprendre en anglais, pour que vous puissiez rapidement connaître des choses qui servent et donc vous exprimer librement dans des cas pratiques de la vie courante. Alors voyons la…

Liste des verbes irréguliers les plus courants en anglais

Combien de verbes irréguliers y a-t-il en anglais ? Il existe plus de 300 verbes irréguliers anglais d'après Wikipédia. Mais les verbes irréguliers anglais les plus fréquents, ceux qui nous intéressent vraiment au début et qui servent tous les jours, sont au nombre de combien ? 50 verbes ? 100 verbes ?

En se basant sur une étude des 5 000 mots les plus utilisés en anglais, réalisée par Fabien, nous remarquons qu'une liste de 60 verbes suffit pour représenter ces principaux verbes irréguliers anglais. Ce sont ceux que vous serez obligé d'employer quotidiennement, et donc ceux qu'il faut connaître en priorité.

En effet, ces principaux verbes irréguliers anglais représentent 14.3% de la langue parlée… Oui, 14% de l'anglais parlé, avec seulement 60 mots !

Pour comparer, les 60 verbes réguliers les plus utilisés représentent seulement environ 5% de l'anglais parlé ! Les verbes irréguliers sont utilisés environ trois fois plus que les normaux !

Trêve de belles paroles : je vous présente en avant-première…
Et triée par ordre de fréquence

Les 60 verbes irréguliers

Liste des 60 verbes irréguliers les plus courants en anglais :

Base verbale Prétérit Participe Passé
BE /bi/ (être)
I think, therefore I am.
WAS /wɑz/ WERE /wɚ/
I was poor, you were rich.
BEEN /bɪn/
Where have you been?
DO /du/ (faire)
How do I get to school from here?
DID /dɪd/
He created a website. He did it himself.
DONE /dən/
Then maybe I'm done talking.
GET /ɡɛt/ (obtenir)
Each player gets six cards.
GOT /ɡɑt/
Cat got your tongue? You're so quiet tonight.
GOT /ɡɑt/
I have also got hardcore evidence.
GO /ɡoʊ/ (aller)
I'm going to the office.
WENT /wɛnt/
We went to a theme park last weekend.
GONE /ɡɔn/
He's probably gone for a walk.
HAVE /hæv/ (avoir)
I have a lot of ideas.
HAD /hæd/
She had a very happy childhood.
HAD /hæd/
They've had their puppy for a few weeks now.
KNOW /noʊ/ (connaître)
Do you know what the worst part is?
KNEW /nju/
He probably knew every bartender in town.
KNOWN /noʊn/
I should have known she was behind this!
THINK /θɪŋk/ (penser)
I think we have a real chance to win.
I thought you cared about the environment.
So… Have you thought about it?
COME /kəm/ (venir)
Come here. Time for a hug!
CAME /keɪm/
They came with some specific program changes.
COME /kəm/
We had so much fun! You should have come with us.
SAY /seɪ/ (dire)
I'd like to say thank you.
SAID /sɛd/
You said yourself that he already has doubt.
SAID /sɛd/
We must have said something wrong.
SEE /si/ (voir)
I'm glad to see you!
SAW /sɔ/
As soon as he saw her, he ran in the opposite direction!
SEEN /sin/
It has seen the most substantive growth.
MAKE /meɪk/ (faire, fabriquer)
Make love, not war.
MADE /meɪd/
Whoever made the appointment made a mistake.
MADE /meɪd/
He may have made a mistake.
TAKE /teɪk/ (prendre)
Do you take sugar with your coffee?
TOOK /tʊk/
We took hundreds of photos and samples.
TAKEN /'teɪk·ən/
It had taken us a long time to realize that.
LET /ɫɛt/ (laisser)
Hmm… Let me think.
LET /ɫɛt/
She actually let us finish the whole meal.
LET /ɫɛt/
I've let this situation get completely out of hand.
TELL /tɛɫ/ (raconter)
It's a secret and I can't tell you!
TOLD /təʊld/
I just don't think he told you the truth.
TOLD /təʊld/
I've told you money's tight.
GIVE /ɡɪv/ (donner)
Can I give you a piece of advice?
GAVE /ɡeɪv/
He gave 10% of everything he earned to charity.
GIVEN /'ɡɪv·ən/
Perhaps judges must be given instructions.
FIND /faɪnd/ (trouver)
I'll do it when I find the time.
FOUND /faʊnd/
But, I personally found it wonderful.
FOUND /faʊnd/
Looks like you've finally found a worthy opponent.
LEAVE /ɫiv/ (quitter)
Nobody leaves till we find it.
LEFT /ɫɛft/
Someone left a package for you.
LEFT /ɫɛft/
She hasn't left her room since you came back.
HEAR /hɪɹ/ (entendre)
I'm sorry to hear it.
HEARD /hɝd/
I heard some very disturbing news.
HEARD /hɝd/
This is the most awkward question I've heard so far.
KEEP /kip/ (garder)
Can you keep a secret?
KEPT /kɛpt/
He kept the secret for years.
KEPT /kɛpt/
Quebec has always kept tuition fees low.
EAT /it/ (manger)
What do you wanna eat?
ATE /eɪt/
Everything he ate made him sick.
EATEN /'it·ən/
Was the fly eaten by the frog?
BRING /bɹɪŋ/ (apporter)
Would you like me to bring something?
BROUGHT /bɹɔt/
I brought you flowers.
BROUGHT /bɹɔt/
Court proceedings were brought against him in this regard.
RUN /ɹən/ (courir)
Run Forrest. Run!
RAN /ɹæn/
They ran to the bargaining table.
RUN /ɹən/
I feel as if I've run a marathon.
BREAK /bɹeɪk/ (casser)
How did you break your wrist?
BROKE /bɹoʊk/
You knocked out four teeth and broke his nose.
BROKEN /'bɹoʊk·ən/
Have you ever broken a bone?
BUY /baɪ/ (acheter)
If I were a billionaire, I'd buy an island.
BOUGHT /bɔt/
I bought him some shoes yesterday.
BOUGHT /bɔt/
I've bought the present but I don't have a girlfriend to send it to.
LOSE /luz/ (perdre)
You may wanna lose some weight before the wedding.
LOST /ɫɔst/
Her kid lost a tooth today.
LOST /ɫɔst/
We have lost, but not the war.
SIT /sɪt/ (être assis)
Let's sit in the center.
SAT /sæt/
Yesterday we sat together, not even speaking.
SAT /sæt/
I've sat in this kitchen a hundred times.
HOLD /hoʊɫd/ (tenir)
They're holding hands.
HELD /hɛɫd/
I held very similar public meetings on this subject.
HELD /hɛɫd/
I've held this position for a decade.
FORGET /fɚ'ɡɛt/ (oublier)
I keep forgetting that word.
FORGOT /fɚ'ɡɑt/
Wait. I forgot what I was saying.
FORGOTTEN /fɚ'ɡɑt·ən/
His brother hasn't forgotten either about the upcoming trip to America.
WEAR /wɛɹ/
(porter un vêtement)
I need something to wear for work.
WORE /wɔɹ/
His daddy wore alligator teeth around his neck and had all these tattoos.
WORN /wɔɹn/
This necklace was worn by Princess Luva.
UNDERSTAND /ˌən·dɝˈstænd/ (comprendre)
Wait, I'm not sure I understand.
UNDERSTOOD /ˌən·dɝˈstʊd/
I never understood people who wear sandals with socks.
UNDERSTOOD /ˌən·dɝˈstʊd/
Women have always understood how precious life is.
WRITE /ɹaɪt/ (écrire)
Wait, wait, wait. Let me write it down.
WROTE /ɹoʊt/
He took a napkin and wrote her phone number before he would forget it!
WRITTEN /'ɹɪt·ən/
That sentence was written by a lawyer.
DRIVE /dɹaɪv/ (conduire)
He drives a white car.
DROVE /dɹoʊv/
He drove carelessly and had an accident.
DRIVEN /'dɹɪv·ən/
I have driven that highway many times.
HANG /hæŋ/ (pendre)
She needs a place to hang her hat.
HUNG /həŋ/
Two more traitors arrested – and hung.
HUNG /həŋ/
I've hung a lantern out for you.
THROW /θɹoʊ/ (jeter)
I had to throw the food away. It was rotten.
THREW /θɹu/
The bride threw her bouquet on his face.
THROWN /θɹoʊn/
They were thrown into the Seine.
STAND /stænd/ (se tenir debout)
Everyone, please stand up.
STOOD /stʊd/
He stood there for a while eating an ice cream.
STOOD /stʊd/
I've stood where they stand.
SHUT /ʃət/ (fermer)
Keep your mouth shut!
SHUT /ʃət/
They finally shut up!
SHUT /ʃət/
The underground's been shut indefinitely.
SPEND /spɛnd/ (dépenser)
I spend a lot of money on my car.
SPENT /spɛnt/
We spent an hour and a half cleaning everything.
SPENT /spɛnt/
They have spent millions of dollars conducting scientific tests.
HIT /hɪt/ (taper)
Hit the brakes! You're gonna hit that car!
HIT /hɪt/
A big wave hit him and he lost his swimsuit.
HIT /hɪt/
He was hit by a car.
SEND /sɛnd/ (envoyer)
I need to send an e-mail.
SENT /sɛnt/
I looked over the file you sent me.
SENT /sɛnt/
I've sent someone to help you get away.
HURT /hɝt/ (blesser)
My left foot hurts.
HURT /hɝt/
He hurt himself pretty badly.
HURT /hɝt/
I've hurt all my friends and family with my addiction.
FALL /fɑɫ/ (tomber)
I wanna fall in love… with you
FELL /fɛl/
Apparently the wall fell in Berlin.
FALLEN /'fɑɫ·ən/
Their real income has catastrophically fallen.
SHOOT /ʃut/ (tirer)
Must be tough to actually shoot somebody.
SHOT /ʃɑt/
I shot a shotgun at the firing range once.
SHOT /ʃɑt/
If he was shot here, you'd expect spatter.
SELL /sɛɫ/ (vendre)
They don't sell a lot of stuff here.
SOLD /soʊɫd/
He sold all the gold he had.
SOLD /soʊɫd/
They've sold over 80 million albums worldwide.
CUT /kət/ (couper)
I cut one side, you the other.
CUT /kət/
I cut myself shaving this morning.
CUT /kət/
Will the grass be cut this weekend?
BECOME /bɪ'kəm/ (devenir)
His dream is to become a fireman.
BECAME /bɪ'keɪm/
It became my responsibility.
BECOME /bɪ'kəm/
And I'm proud to see the person you've become.
BITE /baɪt/ (mordre)
You can pet the dog. Don't worry, he doesn't bite.
BIT /bɪt/
He bit his lip or something.
BITTEN /ˈbɪt·ən/
Am I the only one getting bitten by mosquitoes?
CATCH /kætʃ/ (attraper)
Look! The cat is going to catch the mouse.
CAUGHT /kɑt/
His parents caught him rolling a joint.
CAUGHT /kɑt/
But his friend and long-time organizer was caught red-handed.
SET /sɛt/ (régler)
Set your goals high! Aim for the stars!
SET /sɛt/
He set the table an hour ago.
SET /sɛt/
The oven temperature is set at 400 degrees Fahrenheit.
SPEAK /spik/ (parler)
I wanna speak good English.
SPOKE /spoʊk/
What was the name of the person you spoke to?
SPOKEN /'spoʊk·ən/
I've spoken with my overseas representatives.
FIGHT /faɪt/
(se battre)
You need to fight for your dream.
FOUGHT /fɔt/
My father fought for this country.
FOUGHT /fɔt/
Mankind has fought against many diseases.
BET /bɛt/ (parier)
I bet she barely remembers me.
BET /bɛt/
He bet a fortune on the game.
BET /bɛt/
I've bet my whole fortune on this.
STEAL /stiɫ/ (voler)
It's to make sure his roommates don't steal food from him.
STOLE /ˈstoʊɫ/
It was them who stole the computer…
STOLEN /ˈstoʊɫ·ən/
The crown's been stolen!
GROW /ɡɹoʊ/ (grandir)
What do you want to do when you grow up?
GREW /ɡɹu/
Nothing grew there but wild lavender.
GROWN /ɡɹoʊn/
But you've grown so much these last five years.
BUILD /bɪɫd/ (construire)
They're building a new stadium.
BUILT /bɪɫt/
This is the wardrobe I built for you a decade ago.
BUILT /bɪɫt/
This historic building was built in 1877.
TEACH /titʃ/ (enseigner)
How do you teach a dog to give his paw?
TAUGHT /tɔt/
He taught me practically everything I know!
TAUGHT /tɔt/
Life has taught me that there always exists a choice.
BLOW /bɫoʊ/ (souffler)
He's blowing a balloon.
BLEW /bɫu/
He really blew a fuse about his car.
BLOWN /bɫoʊn/
The wind has blown very strongly all day !
BEAT /bit/ (battre)
I'm sure you'll beat the other team.
BEAT /bit/
I finally beat you at something.
BEATEN /'bit·ən/
Keep strong and remember, cancer can be beaten.
QUIT /kwɪt/ (quitter)
If I were not in debt, I'd quit my job.
QUIT /kwɪt/
I quit working for him yesterday.
QUIT /kwɪt/
You shouldn't have quit racing.
BEGIN /bɪ'ɡɪn/ (commencer)
The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step.
BEGAN /bɪ'ɡæn/
She began experiencing some pain and discomfort at work.
BEGUN /bɪ'ɡən/
I have begun preparations for training.
HIDE /haɪd/ (cacher)
I'm so excited. And I just can't hide it.
HID /hɪd/
Wah! What the hell? Who hid a skeleton in there?
HIDDEN /'hɪd·ən/
I'll never tell anyone where I've hidden the treasure.

Les 60 verbes irréguliers les plus fréquents en anglais

Si cela vous effraie… C'est normal la première fois !

Gardez en tête que tous ces verbes sont ultra-courants et que, en pratiquant intelligemment, cela rentrera assez rapidement. Ce n'est pas le cas lorsque l'on débute l'anglais avec des verbes plus rares tels que beseech – besought – besought ou forsake – forsook – forsaken qui servent une fois tous les trois ans.

Un peu de contexte…

Nous venons de voir une tonne d'exemples et le contexte devrait énormément vous aider à saisir le sens mais, aussi, à voir quand on utilise telle ou telle forme.

Nous avons déjà évoqué les temps en anglais en profondeur, donc nous ne nous y attarderons pas ici.

Gardez juste en tête que le meilleur moyen d'assimiler l'anglais – et les verbes irréguliers ne font pas exception – reste de bien l'observer. Observez quand on utilise le prétérit, observez quand on utilise le participe passé, et vous prendrez de plus en plus conscience de ce qui se dit et ne se dit pas.

Dans un prochain article, nous irons plus loin en voyant comment apprendre les verbes irréguliers en anglais à travers plusieurs stratégies.

Enfin, pour assimiler ces verbes dans des Monologues et Dialogues riches et vivants, tirés de situations quotidiennes réelles, tournez-vous vers la formation d'anglais Click & Speak™, dont est extrait la majorité de ces exemples.

Voir aussi

Si cet article sur les principaux verbes irréguliers anglais vous a plu, ceux-ci vous intéresseront aussi…

Sur les verbes irréguliers en anglais :

Sur les temps et les conjugaisons :

  • Prétérit ou Présent Perfect : Un très bon article technique qui vous guidera plus en détail sur l'utilisation du prétérit et du participe passé.
  • Guide des temps en anglais : Un cours d'anglais sur les caractéristiques de tous les temps en anglais et comment les utiliser.
Sébastien Milhomme
Tags : Phonograph.
Publié dans Grammaire anglaise, le

Commentaires sur Les principaux verbes irréguliers en anglais

2 commentaires à date. Keep it up. 👏.

fiche de 60 verbe irrégulier

Illustration pour Dimitar Dimitrov
Dimitar Dimitrov

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